Turfgrass plant health and protection
The use of poor quality soils is common and it occurs in sportsfields subjected to intend for heavy use. Sportsfields have been constructed using a wide variety of soils and construction techniques, with little thought given to the amount of use, the required quality, and ongoing maintenance demands. The preparation of a playing surface before establishment is critical because it is the best opportunity to set the standards and conditions for the sportsfield, to improve on various problems and deficiencies that may exist. It determines the amount of work needed to maintain a good playing surface, and governs the inputs required to achieve this. The playing quality of a sportsfield is of paramount importance in order to enable a high standard of play to be achieved and to provide a high degree of player safety. The playing quality is dependent upon the physical properties of both the immediate surface layer and the underlying material that is soil and sward characteristics.