chapter  X
African Initiation Rites which deal with the Journey of the Soul
Pages 16

When a man dies his Elimo becomes a disembodied ghost, called Mongoli, which goes to the Underworld, called Longa. If it has been good during life it is allowed to remain there, but if wicked it is punished, after which it is driven out of the Underworld, and goes to live in the Bush or, if formerly a member of a river tribe, it haunts the rivers and creeks. In either case it is distinctly malignant and unless propitiated by gifts of food will try to prevent living men from being successful when hunting. Certain Witch Doctors claim to be able to see the ghosts, and there are men, who are supposed to be mediums, through whom the Mongoli can speak. Sometimes the Mongoli is said to enter the body of a hippopotamus or crocodile, but usually it appears in the form a man. If the natives wish to prevent a Mongoli from travelling along a certain path they put stems of Monkey pepper across it, and the Mongoli cannot cross them. This idea may be the origin of the instructions given to the Hung initiate that if he sees two or three sticks on his path he must not step over them but must push them aside with his foot. From such a belief a method of recognition might easily evolve.