chapter  X
The Multiple Soul
Pages 4

In short, the Kwei represents the soul which remains in the tomb, and to which offerings have to be made on the Chinese “All Souls’ Day,” whereas the Shen, which we are elsewhere told comes from Yang and Heaven, is Divine, and on death, having disentangled itself from its grosser human characteristics, becomes a shining M ing , or Celestial S p ir it. We also see that the baser earthly personality has its full manifestation as P ’oh, while "the energy of the Shen operating in the living human body was denoted in China, except by the Khi, or breath, by the special term Hwun. It is the Li-ki again which teaches us this. We read ‘that . . . . the grandee Ki-Tsze . . . . on burying his son . . . . bared the left side of his body when the mound was finished, and moving to the right, walked round it, howling three times, and then he exclaimed,—that the bones and flesh should return to earth is ordained of fate; but the Hwun or Khi can go everywhere ’ In another section of the same work (Ch. 3 8 , 1 . 27) we read; ‘the Hwun, or K h i , returns to Heaven; the body and the P ’oh return to the Earth. (b)

We thus have two souls, one which is truly immortal, the Shen, consisting of Yang substance and therefore divine. At death this becomes a celestial being of light, called M ing . The other, the K w ei, consists of Yin substance and is of the earth, earthy, whither it ultimately returns. It does not however immediately vanish at death but maintains a precarious existence for some time in the tomb and, according to numerous legends, can sally forth, and if

68 THE HUNG SOCIETY. evilly, disposed injure human beings. Sacrifices and offerings are made to both these souls and are mentioned by Confucius Sa)

But in addition to these two constituent parts there is a third, which binds the others together, and this was the T s’ing, or vital forceSb) We gather that at, or even before, birth the Kwei or animal soul is clearly manifest. In the Tso Ch’wen we read that “when a man is born, the first thing that develops in him is what we call his P ’oh; after the P ’oh is produced, we denote the Yang (Celestial) substance (that is in him) by the name of Hwun. Things of all sorts and kinds being subsequently handled by him, his Ts’ing increases, his Hwun and P ’oh being thereby strengthened; and as a consequence he obtains a T s’ing perfectly sound and vigorous and in the end a Shen or M in g ”{c) This Ts’ing, or vital force, cannot survive independently of his animal soul, or P ’oh, and his Spirit, or Hwun .1