chapter  I
8 Pages

Prevalent views of Science

This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The steady advance of science is assured by this method because it adheres to the facts and abjures prejudices, preconceptions, and wishful thinking and so avoids self-deception. Accordingly there are two main types of science, exact science on the one hand comprising logic and mathematics, concerned with analytic truths and using purely deductive reasoning; and empirical science on the other seeking laws which are generalizations from particular experiences and are verifiable only by observation and experiment. The conception of logical truth to which empiricists are then committed is that it is purely analytic and tautological, and all deductive reasoning is similar. It can proceed validly only to conclusions which are analytically entailed by its premises according to the rules of deductive inference which it prescribes.