The Tanzimat and Young Turk period, 1831–1918
A s in other parts of the Middle East, the two main forces thataffected Iraqi history during the nineteenth century were the growing powers of the centralizing Ottoman state and the region’s integra-
tion into the European-dominated world economy. Both of these processes
were already evident, on a smaller scale, in the preceding period, particularly
during the mamluk and Jalili periods.