The Peace Process
In 1989 the Berlin wall was torn down. Communism collapsed inEurope and the Soviet Russian empire disintegrated. This was seen as the end of the Cold War and something that had been achieved by the diplomacy of individuals and negotiation. The reuniﬁcation of Germany followed. In the early 1990s the Whites in South Africa abdicated, and the ending of apartheid was marked by what was described as a miracle, the peaceful election of a government based on one man one vote. The Arab-Israeli conﬂict looked increasingly like a relic from a past era.