New starts and different kinds of failure
This chapter focuses on number of studies which over the past decade have touched on the English rhetoric of non-English speakers and rhetoric of other languages. It explains about the way in which English expository prose seems to be organized and a few things about the mechanisms that seem to function in it. Most of the notions expressed in what follows are derived from a study of rhetoric in contrastive situations. In the past, language teachers have provided relatively good instruction with respect to the semantic/syntactic value of assertions, somewhat less effective instruction with respect to propositional values, and none at all with respect to illocutionary values. In part, the reluctance of teachers to deal with illocutionary values stems from the fact that those values may be exophoric or endophoric, or cataphoric or to some degree some combination of these. The chapter examines the culture-bound which, because it is realized through finite possible alternatives available in the syntactic system.