chapter  2
21 Pages

Are there any guiding principles from ecological science?

Steinbeck (1951) The Logfrom the Sea o/Cortez. Natural science does not consist of ratifYing what others have said, but in seeking the causes of phenomena.

AJberrus Magnus (?) 1193-1280 We are arguing as to what would happen in the event of a hypothesis which has not been verified by our experience. The principle involved is ... in the absence of evidence to the contrary, we shall assume the unobserved portions of the universe to obey the same laws as the observed portions. But unless we have an independent definition of truth concerning what is observed, this principle will be a mere definition, and the "unobserved portions" will only be a technical device, so long as they remain unobserved. The principle only says something substantial if it means "what I shall observe will be found to resemble what I have observed", or, alternatively, if I can define "truth" independently of observation.