Domesticated and managed ecosystems
Managed ecosystems are also the result of human cultural preferences and activities. They are generally places where the impact is more evident than in wilderness areas (Chapter 5), but where the impact of human cultural energy is less evident than in the domesticated, agricultural systems, where plants and animals are deliberately chosen and cultivated. Intervention might be evident in the managed ecosystem in terms of the production of a commodity such as timber. Here, we include both unplanted forests from which ecosystem products are extracted and also plantation forests which are managed. In the latter case the area is not managed intensively enough to be termed domesticated and although tree species are deliberately chosen and cultivated, there is little intervention between the times of planting and harvesting apart from some
trimming and thinning. Here, then, there is a greater element of uncontrolled establishment of other plant and animal species that would be the case in a more intensively managed domesticated forest systems such as agroforestry.