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German airforce financial benefits pu t aside by government to help those in need a municipal law a docum ent required by the German Occupy­ ing authorities to allow individuals to travel, particularly if the journey involved crossing from one zone to ano ther Resistance network founded by H enri Frenay in November 1941; it involved a num ber of Catholic democrats the writing of letters o f denunciation , some­ times anonymously and sometimes for payment the replacem ent of normal goods by artificial ones, for example, coffee a Paris-based collaborationist group German police a Paris-based collaborationist group officially recognized in January 1943 created by decree in August 1940, it was intended to be a single organization for French veterans of the First and Second World Wars to provide moral and patriotic support for the Vichy gov­ ernment. A special section was formed to cater for wives of members of the Legion. These groups were confined to the southern zone, where they were extremely popular with over 1.5 million women members in the m iddle of 1941






revolution nationale


Resistance network which orig inated in the sou thern zone and which tended to attract p rom inen t socialists groups of young men, often refractaires who es­ caped into the countryside and were organized by the Resistance to help fight the Germans O n 30 January 1943, Darnaud transformed the SOL into the milice (militia), a param ilitary organization, the role of which was to help the French police (and the Germans) crack down on ‘terrorists’ and refractaires those who escaped the compulsory labour draft (STO) and went into hiding in response to German demands for French labour, the Releve scheme was in troduced in Jun e 1942. This system was designed to encour­ age French workers to go to Germany and it allowed for the re tu rn of one French prisoner in exchange for the departure o f th ree French volunteer specialist factory workers to work in Germany. Recruitm ent offices were established across the country. Some volunteers came for­ ward, women as well as men, bu t the numbers were far from enough to satisfy the Germans. Among the prisoners-of-war selected to re tu rn home, priority was given to First World War vet­ erans, fathers of four children and those in jobs ‘necessary to F rance’, bu t very few prisonersof-war were actually repatriated. The low num ­ bers com ing forward were doubtless one of the reasons the measure failed so completely, along with a genuine reluctance to live and work in Germany. The failure of this policy led to the in troduction o f the compulsory labour draft (STO). the national revolution p lanned by Vichy to set France to rights after the Popular Front and the impact of its crushing defeat. It involved a desire to re tu rn to traditional values and a num ber of right-wing measures were im plem ented German army soldiers