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Bibliographical Essay
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Not a great deal has been published about women during the war in France and in terested scholars are obliged to consult a num ber o f more general works in o rder to gain some knowledge. Cited below are the main secondary texts which were helpful in the writ­ ing of this book. Most are in French; few have been translated into English and, where possible, English alternatives are suggested. There are a num ber of helpful general histories o f the war and

the Occupation in France which act as an in troduction to anyone interested in the period. In English, H.R. Kedward’s Occupied France: Collaboration and Resistance 1940-1944 (Oxford, 1985) is a standard text. In French, Yves D u rand’s La France dans la deuxieme guerre mondiale 1939-1945 (Paris, 1989) o r H enri Rousso, Les Annees noires, vivre sous VOccupation (Paris, 1992) are bo th very accessible. Some o ther books deal usefully with the everyday life aspect of the war. Alfred Sauvy’s La Vie economique des Frangais de 1939-1945 (Paris, 1978) is a classic source o f information. H enri Amouroux has written a lengthy series of books, La Vie quotidienne des Frangais sous VOccupation (Paris, 1977-97). More recendy, Vivre et survivre en France 1939-47 (Paris, 1995) by Dom inique Veillon provides detailed information. However, there is virtually no th ing in English and none of these books really give much sense o f the extent to which the war was a gendered experience. On the o ther hand, there is now an extensive literature about

French women between the wars which serves as essential background to women’s wartime experience. France between the Wars: Gender and Politics (London, 1996) by Sian Reynolds is a superb example of gender history. O ther works focus particularly on feminist groups, the best of which is by Christine Bard, Les Filles de Marianne: histoire des feminismes 1914-40 (Paris, 1995). In English, Feminism and the

Third Republic (Oxford, 1996) by Paul Smith covers much of the same g round and gives a detailed analysis of the different feminist groups and their activities. There is now a growing body of literature specifically on the

personal experiences o f women in the Second World War. The best starting place is probably a chap ter by Helene Eck, ‘Les Fran^aises sous Vichy: femmes du desastre - citoyennes par le desastre?’ in Georges Duby and Michelle Perrot (eds), Histoire des femmes le xxe siecle (Paris, 1992), pp. 185-209. Femmes sous VOccupation, by Celia Bertin (Paris, 1993), although a personalized account, covers most aspects o f women’s experience, as does Femmes dans la guerre 1939-1945 (Paris, 1989) by Guylaine Guidez, which also includes an in terna­ tional perspective. In English, a now dated bu t immensely helpful article by Rayna Kline, ‘Partisans, Godmothers, Bicyclists and o ther Terrorists: Women in the French Resistance and under Vichy’, Proceedings of the Western Society for French History (1977), pp. 375-83 sets up many o f the key issues. A special issue o f Modem and Con­ temporary France (ed. 1999) edited by myself and Claire Gorrara entitled Gendering the Occupation covers a range of topics related to women’s experience. There has recently been an increasing level of in terest in the

in tentions of the Vichy government towards women. Vichy et Vetemel feminin (Paris, 1996) by Francine Muel-Dreyfus, and M iranda Pol­ la rd ’s Reign of Virtue: Mobilizing Gender in Vichy France (Chicago, 1998), pull together the main debates and research on this subject. Francis Spinzer’s Une Affaire de femmes, Paris 1943, execution dune avorteuse (Paris, 1986) tells the story of Marie-Louise Giraud, who was guillotined by Vichy for abortion-related crimes. Paid employment of m en and women during the war is still

a relatively open field. The collection of essays of the conference held in 1992 on Les Ouvriers en France pendant la deuxieme guerre mondiale, published in the same year as an edited collection by Denis Peschanski and Jean-Louis Robert, is really the only research available. Catherine Om nes’ study o f Ouvneres parisiennes: marches du travail et trajectoires professionnelles des parisiennes au 20 siecle (Paris, 1997) focuses on women and is a most necessary addition to the existing material, bu t more research needs to be carried out. Prisoners-of-war were the subject of Yves D urand’s detailed study

La Captivite: histoire des prisonniers de guerre frangais 1939-45 (Paris, 1980). Christophe Lewin’s thesis, published in French as Le Retour des prisonniers de guerre (Paris, 1986), explored the return of prisonersof-war. But Sarah Fishman was the first to take the specific category

of wives of prisoners-of-war and exam ine their experience in France during the war in We Will Wait! The Wives of French Prisoners of War, 1940-45 (New Haven and London, 1991). As concerns political activity during the Occupation, local studies

have been very helpful in showing how collaboration and resistance were no t clear-cut choices. Paul Jankowski, Communism and Collabora­ tion: Simon Sabani and Politics in Marseille, 1919-44 (London, 1984) and John Sweets, Choices in Vichy France (Oxford, 1986) are illum in­ ating although they do no t take any account of gender. Similarly, the more recent study by Robert Zaretsky, Nimes at War: Religion, Politics and Public Opinion in the Gard, 1938-44 (University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), provides a great deal of local flavour. There is, to date, no study devoted to women and collaboration,

bu t a num ber o f the general texts are helpful. Richard Cobb’s ra ther maverick book, French and Germans, Germans and French: A Personal Interpretation of France under Two Occupations 1914-1918/ 1940-1944 (Hanover, 1983) was the first to raise some im portant questions about women’s involvement in collaboration. Many of these are taken up by Philippe Burrin in La France a Vheure allemande (Paris, 1995), translated as Living with Defeat: France under the German Occupation 1940-44 (London, 1996). The most developed work on women is being conducted by Frangoise Leclerc and Michele Wending in their studies of the collaboration trials: see ‘La Repression des femmes coupables de la collaboration’, in Frangoise Thebaud (ed .) , Clio: histoire, femmes et societes, resistances et libhations (Toulouse, 1995), pp. 129-51. (Their thesis is due for publication on com­ pletion.) The collection of essays Gender and Fascism in Modem France, by Melame Hanthouse and Richard J. Golsan (Hanover and London, 1997), covers a literary range of subjects. H enri Rousso’s article ‘L ’Epuration en France, une histoire

inachevee’, in Vingtieme Siecle (Jan.-M ar. 1992), summarized the existing research at that time. Since then there have been a num ber of publications on the punishm ent of women by head-shaving. Alain Brossat’s book, Les Tondues: un camaval moche (Paris, 1992), was a first extensive study of this. See also a chap ter by Corran Laurens, ‘La Femme au turban: les femmes tondues’, in H.R. Kedward and N. Wood (eds), The Liberation of France: Image and Event (London, 1995), pp. 159-73. Fabrice Virgili has published a num ber o f art­ icles on this subject: ‘Les “Tondues” a la Liberation: le corps des femmes, enjeu d ’une reappropria tion’, in Frangoise Thebaud (ed.), Clio, pp. 111-27, and ‘Les Tontes de la L iberation en F rance’, in

Frangoise Rouquet and Daniele Voldman (eds), Les Cahiers de VIHTP, 31 (1995), pp. 53-67. Luc Capdevila’s work is also fascinating in this context: see ‘La “Collaboration sentim entale”: antipatriotisme ou sexualite hors-normes?’, in Frangoise Rouquet and Daniele Voldman (eds), Les cahiers de VIHTP, 31 (1995), pp. 67-82, and his Les Bretons au lendemain de VOccupation: Imaginaires et comportements dune sortie de guerre 1944-1945 (Rennes, 1999). There have been a num ber of descriptive accounts of women’s

individual and collective experiences in the Resistance, the best of which is the collection by the UFF, Les Femmes dans la Resistance (Paris, 1977). The collective experience of women who were arrested by the Germans and deported comes across forcefully in Les Frangaises a Ravensbriick (Paris, 1965). Frances Hamelin, Femmes dans la nuit 1939-44 (Paris, 1988) discusses the experience of women who were im prisoned in France. There are a num ber of b iograph­ ical and autobiographical accounts of women in the Resistance, some of which have been available for some time, while others are m ore recent or have been republished: Marie-Madeleine Fourcade, L Arche de Noe (Paris, 1968/1989); Brigitte Friang, Regarde-toi qui meurs (Paris, 1970/1989); Elisabeth de Miribel, La Liberte souffre violence (1981/1989); Mireille Albrecht, Berty (Paris, 1986); Lise London, La Megere de la rue Daguerre (Paris, 1995); Claire Chevrillon, Code Name Christiane Clouet (Texas, 1995); Marie Chamming, f a i choisi la tempete (Paris, 1997). The best of these is Lucie Aubrac’s Ils partiront dans Vivresse (Paris, 1984), translated as Outwitting the Gestapo (Lincoln, NE, 1993). For a literary analysis of these accounts see Claire Gorrara, Women's Representations of the Occupation in Post-68 France (Macmillan, 1998). As for historians of the Resistance, a series of descriptive collec­

tions provides valuable material about women’s involvement bu t lacks any extensive scholarly analysis: Nicole Chatel, Des femmes dans la Resistance (Paris, 1972); Ania Francos, Les Femmes dans la Resistance (Paris, 1978); Marie-Claude Coudert, Elies la Resistance (Paris, 1983); Margaret Rossiter, Women in the Resistance (New York, 1986). The work by Pierre Laborie, Resistants Vichyssois et autres (Toulouse, 1980), and H.R. Kedward, Resistance in Vichy France (Oxford, 1985) and In Search of the Maquis (Oxford, 1993), opened the way for a more gendered reading of the situation. Recent sociologies o f the Resist­ ance: Jacqueline Sainclivier, La Resistance en Ille et Vilaine 1940-1944 (Rennes, 1993); Olivier Wieviorka, Une certaine idee de la Resistance: defense de la France 1940-49 (Paris, 1995), and Laurent Douzou, La Desobeissance: historie du mouvement Liberation-Sud (Paris, 1995), provide

valuable indications o f women’s participation in the various Resistance networks. Dom inique Veillon in h e r article ‘Resister au fem inin’, Penelope, 12 (Spring 1985), called for a rewriting of the history of the Resistance to include women, and Paula Schwarz did this in two essays: first, ‘Re-Defining Resistance’, in M.R. H igonnet, J. Jenson, S. Michel and M.C. Weitz (eds), Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars (New Haven, 1987), and then ‘Partisanes and G ender Politics in Vichy F rance’, French Cultural Studies, 16/1 (Spring 1989). More recently, Margaret Collins Weitz, Sisters in the Resistance: How Women Fought to Free France (New York, 1995), offers a helpful overview of women’s activities in the Resistance using extensive oral sources, bu t fails to offer much analysis. The impact o f the Liberation on women, a major concern o f this

book, is also raised in several of the essays edited by Frangoise Thebaud in Clio: Histoire, Femmes et Societes, Resistances et Liberations (Toulouse, 1995). There are also a num ber of interesting essays concerning gender in H.R. Kedward and N. Wood (eds), The Lib­ eration of France: Image and Event (London, 1995). For a general history of the Fourth Republic see Georgette Elgey,

La Republique des illusion (Paris, 1969), orJean-Pierre Rioux, La France de la Quatrieme Republique 1944-52 (Paris, 1980). The books in the Cursus series are also very clearly laid out: JeanJacques Becker, Histoire politique de la France depuis 1945 (Paris, 1988), and Dominique Borne, Histoire de la societe frangaise depuis 1945 (Paris, 1988). In Eng­ lish, Philip William’s Crisis and Compromise: Politics in the Fourth Republic (New York, 1966) offers an overview of the political issues. A lbert and Nicole Du Roy, Citoyennes! II y a cinquante ans le vote des femmes (Paris, 1994) gives the most detailed account o f the debates leading to women acquiring the right to vote. Claire D uchen’s book, Women’s Rights and Womens Lives in France 1944-1968 (London, 1994), takes women’s experience right th rough the postwar period to 1968 and the beginnings o f second-wave feminism. For a European perspective of women and the war, there are

now a num ber of national studies. On the UK, Penny Summerfield’s Women Workers and the Second World War (London, 1984/1989) and the m ore recent Reconstructing Women’s Wartime Lives (Manchester, 1998), are most useful. In Italy, Perry W illson’s The Clockwork Factory (Oxford, 1993) is a case study of women’s work under fascism. Victoria de Grazia, How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy 1922-45 (Berkeley, 1992), is a detailed analysis o f the impact of fascism on women; and Jane Slaughter, Women and the Italian Resistance 1943-1945 (Denver, 1997), is a recent account o f women’s wartime activism in Italy. Ute

Frevert, Women in German History (London, 1990), deals with German women’s wartime experience, bu t the classic study of women under Nazism is Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family and Nazi Politics (London, 1987). Rita T halm ann’s collection Femmes et fascismes (Paris, 1986) contains a num ber of helpful articles, as does the more recent Feminismes et nazisme (Paris, 1997), edited by Liliane Kandel. Books are also appearing about women’s experience of the war in o ther European countries. See Shirley Mangini Gonzalez, Memoires of Resistance (New Haven, 1995) on Spain, and Jane t Hart, New Voices in the Nation (Ithaca, 1996) on Greece.