This chapter presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book emphasizes Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) had traditionally been a male-dominated party in which issues concerning women's rights were sidelined by the allegedly more central concern for class emancipation. Social Democrats maintained that they represented the true German nation throughout the bitter years of exile from Nazi Germany. Social Democratic achievements have been attained largely within the framework of the nation state: material prosperity, social welfare, civil rights and political democratisation. The seductive power of nationalism was linked to the desire to achieve success at the ballot box and to gain governmental power. The SPD had its origins in a social movement which held out a millenarian vision of social justice and individual freedom to its supporters. The First World War offered labour movements across Europe a chance to integrate workers more firmly into the framework of the nation state.