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of the national league over the Italian regional leagues.

For some clubs it simply makes economic sense to play across the border rather than in their own country. Lower travel costs are a key factor, which reinforce and overlap with geographical proximity. Economic

pragmatism must also take into account relative income as well as relative costs. Playing across the border in a higher standard of competition should increase attendance and income at home matches, as well as providing a higher level of income from away matches (here economic pragmatism overlaps with status presence).