The European Commission
The Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties witnessed an attempt to create in the European Union (EU) a fully capable foreign policy actor, with the capacity to draw upon military means to underpin its actions. From the time of the Treaty of Rome, the European Community (EC) had focused its efforts on economic integration and eschewed the pursuit of a foreign identity, whilst leaving defence issues in the hands of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). By the 1970s, a foreign policy mechanism entitled European Political Cooperation (EPC) had been established, in recognition of the fact that there was an external dimension to trade cooperation. The forging of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) in the 1990s was build upon the foundations that had been laid before in EPC. The CFSP was born amid ambitious hopes that reflected the end of the Cold War, it has proved to be an arduous process to realize these in practice.