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Prologue

J e ffre y s , t h e C a th o l ic F a th e r P e t r e a n d t h e Q u a k e r W i l l i a m P e n n , all o f

J A M E S II

w h o m w e r e n o d o u b t i m p l i e d in t h e B i l l s i n d i c t m e n t . W h e n d e a l in g w i t h

S c o t t i s h a f fa i r s h e r e l i e d o n t h e e a r l o f M e lfo r t , a n d w i t h I r i s h o n t h e e a r l

o f T y rc o n n e l , b o t h o f w h o m h a v e b e e n c r i t i c i s e d f o r m i s l e a d in g t h e k in g

a b o u t h i s p r o s p e c t s i n S c o t l a n d a n d I r e la n d . B u t t h e t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r

w a s t h a t t h e y w e r e ju s t a d v is e r s , f a m e s h i m s e l f w a s d e t e r m i n e d to b e k in g

i n d e e d a n d to m a k e t h e k e y d e c is io n s . I t is a m i s t a k e m a n y h i s t o r i a n s h a v e

m a d e to t r y to a t t r i b u t e t h e k in g 's 'p o lic ie s ', to u s e a n a n a c h r o n i s t i c t e r m ,

to a n y b o d y e lse .