Assessing English language and literacy around the world
Introduction In Chapter 1, we showed how reading tests within both British and American traditions reflect the autonomous model of literacy . As we observed, both kinds of tests rest on certain assumptions about text, the nature of communication between individuals it engenders, and the skills they draw on in such communication. We then laid out a pragmatic model based on an alternative set of assumptions: namely, that all texts are socially constructed, that readers and writers are necessarily involved in social exchange, and that the skills used in this exchange are inherently social. Throughout the preceding section, this model was used to explore various approaches to testing and assessment. At this point, we would like to draw together these explorations and consider them from a policy perspective.