Data quality and data exchange standards
This chapter provides an overview of the facilities provided by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and mapping packages for displaying spatial data, and some awareness of issues in cartographic design. It introduces the basic types of cartographic symbols. The chapter deals with the display of 3D data, with some mention of techniques for helping to achieve realism. It reviews graphic variables of hue, lightness, size, shape, texture, orientation and location, each of which can be used to communicate information in a map. Map projections can easily be changed, schemes for symbolisation of data can be modified very rapidly and, once very demanding, visualisations of three-dimensional data can be created with ease. Since the visibility of text and map features is a function of the symbols and colour schemes, the name-placement system must store this information. The chapter also reviews briefly some methods available for interactive exploration and retrieval of spatially referenced information.