THE DESTRUCTION AND RESTORATION OF MULTIPLE MONARCHY, 1637–60
The restoration of the monarchy was attempted at all following the bloodiest series of wars and the worst social and political unrest that Britain and Ireland had yet known, attests to the solid foundations for government and society laid by the Tudors and early Stuarts. The king's ill-equipped and demoralised army was routed at Newburn and nearly 20,000 Scottish troops occupied north-eastern England, determined to effect in England the same changes they had brought to Scotland. The constitutional changes undertaken by the Covenanters in Scotland also provided the English parliament with a model for the establishment of constitutional checks on the monarch. The former was achieved in February 1644 when a new executive, comprised of English and Scots representatives, known as the Committee of Both Kingdoms, was established to coordinate the British war effort in England and Ireland.