LANCASTER AND YORK, 1399–1485
This conclusion covers some closing thoughts of key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. When the reigns of the first four Tudors are viewed together, and within the broader context of English parliamentary history, they constitute one of the more important phases in the development of Parliament. Furthermore, change was not a characteristic of the early Tudor parliaments alone. Henry VII's assemblies were the legatees of over 200 years of intermittent existence, intermittent because they were activated only when the monarch required them. Throughout the 1530s, and indeed for most of the century, the House of Lords remained the more orderly, organised, prestigious, influential, better-served, and efficient chamber. During the pre-Reformation parliaments, there were innovations, as well as the continuation or conclusion of medieval developments. The King's cavalier practice of tampering with Commons' bills, after they had passed both Houses, came to an end. Printed statutes, and a systematically-compiled Lords' Journal with attendance register, were regularly produced.