chapter  6
21 Pages


Despite prophecies of its eclipse following both world wars of this century, force remains probably the most important instrument for the prosecution of conflict available to all states other than micro-states. The art of employing force in the service of foreign policy, for which much modern thought remains indebted to the Prussian military theorist, Karl von Clausewitz, is known as ‘strategy’. While only the open exploitation of force will be the subject of this chapter, it should not be overlooked that, when states confine their actions to the diplomatic sphere, the possibility that force might be employed will some­ times be present as a ‘silent calculation’.1