chapter  8
17 Pages


To the extent that it is the manipulation of opinion by words alone, propa­ ganda, by virtue of its characteristic contempt for facts and logic, is a perversion of the ancient art of rhetoric. But propaganda goes beyond this ancient art in two further senses: first, by exploiting pictures as well as words; and secondly, by conveying both through the channels of mass communication. In short, propaganda is the unscrupulous manipulation of public opinion by symbols carried through the mass media - political advertising.