This chapter guides health care professional how to assess lifestyle behaviours of patients with substance misuse and how to provide guidance on changing their behaviour. Substance misuse can include alcohol, smoking and various legal and illegal substances. The chapter provides the signs and symptoms that the health care professional should look for. It also provides strategies for promoting change depending on what stage people are at. The chapter suggests the health care professional to set a goal for change, such as a quit date or a target for cutting down on substance use during the preparation stage. The maintenance stage perform the consider attending a relapse prevention group, aftercare programme or self-help group. The managing relapse Look for changes that they have maintained, such as: using less of a drug or using less often, positive lifestyle changes, and reducing or eliminating other high-risk behaviours.