To have ﻲﻓ ،ﻊَﻣ ،ِﻝ ،َﺪﻨِﻋ
The perfect tense verb, mostly used to express past time, does not exist without a subject marker. In the case of the perfect, the subject marker is suffixed to the verb. In the singular there are five possibilities, in the dual there are three, and in the plural there are five. The total number is therefore. In the following these subject markers are detailed, first for the singular, then the dual, and finally the plural. Traditionally, a verb entry in an Arabic dictionary is presented in its shortest form, which is the third person masculine singular. Each of the subject markers is suffixed to a verb stem. As illustrated in the chapter, for the dual there are only three distinct subject markers. There is no first person dual, for which the first person plural subject-marker suffix is used. The second person has one subject marker, tuma, with no distinction between the masculine and feminine.