chapter  2
Reason Abstractly
Pages 8

Children are exposed to problem solving in Kindergarten in a concrete way, with physical objects such as toys or blocks, or acting out a problem-solving situation. When children are in first and second grade, they gradually move away from the concrete stage of learning and are exposed to number models repre - senting the problem-solving situations. Exposing children to this connecting stage, in which there are still physical or visual representations alongside the numbers and symbols, is critical so children will be able to successfully reach the abstract stage. It is also crucial for problem solvers to be able to recognize and use the properties of operations when applying SMP2.