The year 2008 was marked by commodity price volatility, for example, crude oil price changes and simultaneous food price increases which led to food riots in developing countries. Looming threats from climate change, food insecurity and growing poverty pose challenges for supporting the world’s growing population. Sustainable economic progression cannot follow traditional industrial means. Such contemporary uncertainty spurs the pursuit of a different way of life. The demand is high to rewrite the history of human development if we are to sustain ourselves. This book presents a historical, political, economic assessment of the food versus fuel debate. The reassessment of the relationship, as has been played out since the middle of 2000, is accomplished by presenting an innovative theoretical framework that aims to improve understanding about complex and multifaceted commodities such as biofuels that connect the energy market with the agricultural market through the threads of the global value chain.