Looking forward while leaning backward
This book empirically tests the extent to which non-edible, drought resistant, fi rst generation biofuels crops like jatropha could contribute to energy security, climate change mitigation, and poverty reduction, and subsequently help to improve the agricultural sector in developing countries and to ease food insecurity. At the heart of this research is contextualization of ‘the rules of the game in a society or, more formally… the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction’ (North 1990: 3). One of the distinguishing features of this quotation is that developed or high income countries’ institutional capacity to articulate and enforce consistent rules of the game is greater than that in developing countries. Developing countries involved in complex diplomatic relationships fi nd their national policies being infl uenced by foreign interests playing the roles of investors, consumers, and aid donors. North’s notion of humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction forms the core of the IFS framework proposed to analyse how rules and policies condition the political environment, market arrangements, and individuals’ decisions in a given context. This chapter utilizes the theoretical framework presented in Chapter 2 to analyse the case studies. The context-specifi c analysis developed in Chapters 4 and 5 is combined to make observations on results and lessons for the future. The comparative case study analysis between Tanzania and Malaysia provide evidence for these three points through the lens of multidisciplinary research on the biofuels industry development and its impact on food security.