This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book aims political ideologies to give empirical normative descriptions about the world, and incite people to action. It is exactly representation of the world as being characterised by postmodern socio-political formations that the contemporary Kemalist ideology refutes by giving its own account based on the continuing relevancy of classical modernism. One major purpose of this study is to challenge both of these claims Kemalism is definitely not dead and that it is not at all clear, at least in its entirety. On the other hand, grounded in the idea that it is only by analysing contemporary Kemalist ideology that understand the world-view of the secular middle classes in Turkey. In this study all the approaches to political ideologies presented are selectively utilised to account for the nature and contents of contemporary Kemalism.