The presuppositions of contemporary Kemalism
This chapter explains the concept of 'philosophy of history' as an idea concerning the process of history conceived as the actual course of events, including explanation of what kind of meaning or pattern there in events taken as a whole, also attempting to discover the concluding stage. It follows the case of contemporary Kemalism, the ideas concerning the nature of truth and the human nature are closely related to the ideas about the process of history. The contemporary Kemalist intellectuals defend, without exception, the conception that the Kemalist ideology grounded on the idea of universal scientific truths discovered with rational thinking and the experimental method. In this sense history characterised by the constant competition among nations to reach the level of material and intellectual strength that secures a nation's independence. As is the case with the concepts of 'modernity' and 'enlightenment', the concepts of 'underdevelopment' and 'colonialism' run through the contemporary Kemalist discourse.