Lean tools for disruption
Lean came into being through the Toyota Automotive Company. Recovering from World War II, Toyota began utilizing tools that had been developed and demonstrated to them by W. Edwards Deming, a US quality control expert, who was working in Tokyo to help the Japanese economy recover. These methodologies help enable the creation of a new type of global manufacturing company, with a different focus on manufacturing. Lean was named and its tools delineated in the 1990s in two books by Womack and Jones, The Machine That Changed the World (1990) and Lean Thinking (2003). Since then, lean has become the recognized manufacturing process of choice for all industries (see Austen, 2010).