The Critical Role of Scheduling in Fully Implementing Middle School Practices
Schools designed specifically for middle-Ievel students were implemented beginning in the mid-1960s. Since that time there has been a continuous trend away from the traditional junior high school that serves grades 7-9 toward middle school configurations, typically involving grades 6-8 (Viadero, 1996). In 1973, there were nearly four junior highs for every middle school; by 1993, there were approximately three middle schools for every remaining junior high (9,573 vs. 3,970) (National Center for Education Statistics, 1995). While there has been widespread adoption of the general concept of the "middle school," not all aspects of its philosophy have been implemented equally.