One of the principle aims of archetypal theory is to uncover the guiding fantasies that shape how psychology approaches the psyche. Since Sigmund Freud's first use of the term, transference has remained a primary focus in Freudian analysis and has come to occupy a more dominant role in contemporary derivatives of Jungian analysis. The chapter reviews some of the major perspectives on the concept of transference in hopes of providing the background necessary to differentiate an archetypal perspective. The chapter explains particular elements of classical mythology, as it has been understood through the lens of archetypal psychology. It presents a case example that is aimed at exemplifying an archetypal understanding of psychodynamics. Melanie Klein's contribution to the notion of transference expanded the theory to include several important additional factors. The tension between early environment and innate disposition has been and remains a matter of emphasis in both Jungian and Freudian derivatives of psychoanalysis.