Looking philosophically: action, challenging orthodoxy and changing attitudes
Considering the philosophical bases of special education may seem at ﬁrst an indulgence far removed from more useful ‘practice’. In fact, practice is always informed by the philosophical stance that people adopt, whether consciously or subconsciously. Sabournie (2006) recognises that ‘philosophy of approach does not directly inﬂuence every aspect of special education’. However, a theoretical orientation ‘will interact with what students with disabilities will receive as intervention in school, how teachers defend their pedagogy, and what teachertrainers depend on to prepare present and future educators’ (ibid., p. 63). Anyone believing they do not have a philosophical position or that it is not necessary to have one is simply unaware of their own.