This chapter focuses on the group of theories that have been opposed to the equivalence paradigm. The chapter closes with a view of translation that concerns not so much texts but projects, understood as sets of materials and information. The main points covered in this chapter are: The Skopos theory developed by Hans Vermeer breaks with the equivalence paradigm by giving priority to the target-side purpose to be fulfilled by the translation. For Skopos theory, equivalence characterizes a situation where the functions of the start text and the translation are supposed to be the same, and is considered a special case. Holz-Manttari's concept of "translatorial action" sees the translator as an expert in cross-cultural communication who can do much more than translate. Honig and Kussmaul's "principle of the necessary degree of precision" states that the translator should give the details that the reader needs, which may be more than those in the start text, or less.