This chapter explores the field as a paradigm of translation theory. The chapter asks whether translation is part of localization, or vice versa, and what the cultural effects of localization might be, particularly with respect to the increasing numbers of volunteer translators. The main points in this chapter are: The localization industry responds to the problem of uncertainty by creating artificial languages and cultures. Localization is the preparation of a product for a new locale. A locale is a set of linguistic, economic, and cultural parameters for the end-use of the product. What makes localization a new paradigm is the key role played by internationalization, which is the preparation of material so that it can be translated quickly and simultaneously into many languages. Although electronic translation technologies are not to be equated with localization, they enhance the role of internationalization. One effect of the technologies is to promote non-linear modes of text production, use, and translation.