Energy and emissions: technologies and systems
This chapter describes the challenges and opportunities in fostering larger-scale transformations of whole sectors. The remainder of Pillar explained why our energy systems are so wasteful and the extensive progress made in policies to improve efficiency. The chapter outlines lessons and potential transition pathways in some of the world's major energy systems: transport in the Americas, the European electricity system and human settlements in Asia. The Brazilian story demonstrates the need for policies that combine both Second and Third Domain drivers over an extended period: using guaranteed prices and sound innovation policy including regulation to drive the diffusion of flexi-fuel vehicles and public investment in infrastructure. The chapter explains the 'micro' point of view of the single innovation to the sectoral framework of the infrastructure that embeds our energy systems and helps to define feasible technology paths. Technology investment alone cannot solve the global energy problem.