The evidence to this point: so far, so good. Chapter 3 illustrated a huge array of technological options for the provision of clean energy at varied additional costs – sometimes ‘negative’ and often modest – across the wide diversity of our energy systems. The remainder of Pillar I explained why our energy systems are so wasteful ( Chapter 4 ) and the extensive progress made in policies to improve efﬁ ciency ( Chapter 5 ). The chapters of Pillar II illustrated the large cumulative inﬂ uence of energy pricing ( Chapter 6 ) and noted that despite all its complexities, setbacks and imperfections, progress is being made towards proper pricing ( Chapter 7 ) and that there are options for at least partly addressing the distributional impacts that have impeded this ( Chapter 8 ). The previous chapter ( Chapter 9 ) explained the blockages that have so far impeded low-carbon innovation and the progress made to overcome them.