Work Motivation and Culture
There is sometimes a social influence aspect to this process. In the workplace, motivation is often seen as a key managerial function whereby employees are induced to perform to achieve the results expected in their jobs and thereby to serve organizational goals. Managers are expected to acquire a working understanding of the inner forces that energize subordinates into a sequence of behaviors directed toward organizational goals, namely, by using individual satisfiers of one kind or another (Scott & Mitchell, 1976; Thurley & Wirdenius, 1989). The notion of satisfiers is a linchpin of classic need theories (Alderfer, 1972; Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, & Capwell, 1957; Maslow, 1943; McClelland, 1961), balance theories (Adams, 1965), and expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964). Even the so-called human relations view (Mayo, 1949) embodies the assumption that the most "satisfying" work arrangement for the individual is also the most efficient for the organization (Filey, House, & Kerr, 1976; Likert, 1961). Overall, the prevailing ethos of work motivation is both self-serving and manipulative by managers and organizations (Boas, 1991).