chapter  1
13 Pages

Levels and Processes in Motivation and Culture

In this chapter an attempt is presented to get beyond the limitations of our perspectives by looking at individual psychology and the group culture within a single framework. This framework has previously been proposed (Munro, 1992) as a solution to a very similar problem within psychology itself, namely, the schism between those who espouse a neuropsychological reductionism and a positivist perspective as the solution to the unification of psychology, and those who regard a relativistic and socially constructed reality as the more ontologically valid perspective on the discipline. One might add in passing that there is a related tension between scientists and practitioners, between those who see themselves as seeking fundamental and universally generalizable truths and those who rely on working hypotheses about ever-changing practical realities.