Socialism in Advanced Countries
I N the present chapter we have to examine the prospects for the ultimate success of socialism in advanced countries such as Great Britain, Germany and the United States.1n
these countries, all the conditions for the success of socialism already exist except the political ones: the wage-eamers are educated and accustomed to industrial processes; large-scale production, with all the necessary plant, is in being; industrious habits have been taught in the stern school of capitalism. Moreover, it is just because of certain natural advantages that these countries are advanced: mineral wealth, geographical position, climate, and the character of the people are all in their favour as against the countries which are still undeveloped. Their methods of production being more efficient, they have vastly more wealth per head than Russia or China have ever had, and therefore they can afford a greater loss by disorganization and civil war without being reduced to absolute starvation. Apart from international difficulties, any one of these countries could become successfully socialistic tomorrow if it so desired. But the very success of capitalism in these countries, while producing the technical conditions for socialism, has also weakened the effective desire for it. No doubt the number of people calling themselves socialists has increased, but the intensity of their belief in their creed has diminished faster than their numbers have grown.