When Planning Institutions Fail
The Hoy No Circula (HNC, or No Driving Today) program is an unprecedented effort to limit 20 percent of vehicular circulation in Mexico City each day of the week in a large-scale effort to reduce air pollution. However, according to Raúl Tornel, representative of the Comisión de Ecología de Concamin (Confederation of Industrial Chambers of the United Mexican States), the HNC program constitutes a scandal and corruption (Urrutia 1996). A World Bank study has shown the HNC program to be ineffective in curbing automobile use, with some indicators even pointing to increased automobile usage as a result of the program (Eskeland and Feyzioglu 1995, 1). Despite some initial success based on reduced traffic congestion and curtailed air pollution, the HNC program did not achieve the desired results-households circumvented the ban by buying a second car (Onursal and Gautam 1997, 156).