chapter  2
Competitive Intelligence programmes for SMEs in France: evidence of changing attitudes
Pages 14

Over the last 10 years France has implemented regional programmes to increase the

awareness of, and change attitudes towards, the Competitive Intelligence (CI) practices of

enterprises. Dedijer (1994) identified France as the first country in the world to look closely at

the relationships between government, intelligence and society. Uniquely in France, and in

contrast to other European and North American countries, CI support is considered to be a

state role (Carayon, 2003; Dou, 2004; Martre, 1994; Smith & Kossou, 2008) and to be

implemented throughout French regions (Goriat, 2006; Moinet, 2008). The emphasis has

primarily been on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) with the Chambers of

Commerce and Industry (CCI) playing a central role (Clerc, 2009). The overall objective of

this study is to investigate the emergingFrench paradigmofCI as a public policy. Specifically,

this paper addresses the roles and perspectives of the CI programme directors who interact

with SMEs in the field. Table 1 summarises the research design.