Intersecting Gender and Sexual Orientation: An Analysis of Sexuality and Citizenship in Gender Equality Policies in Spain
In this paper I argue that Spanish gender-equality policies are evolving largely and differentially at the regional and local levels, going from soft to hard politics, facilitating the emergence of gay and lesbian policies, influencing one another. The flexible dynamics that allow civil-society participation, the involvement of key lesbian
feminists and openly gay politicians are relevant at the regional and local levels. There are a number of experiences that are challenging national politics in terms of equality discourses. While the national debate has focused on the achievement of same-sex marriage, local and regional developments have been much richer in the inclusion of gender and sexual orientation in their policies. Not only have the regional parliaments legislated on partnerships and supported the global debate on same-sex marriage, but they also have initiated a trend to consult civil society, including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and co-opted activists in the public administration.