Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses
Profound changes are underway in relation to the manner in which both citizenship and equality are conceived, pursued and secured. Two key challenges in particular stand out. Firstly, where citizenship was located in relation to the nation-state, it is increasingly being framed by the emergence of multi-level governance, which signals the growing importance of local, regional and global levels of citizenship practices, making the notion of multi-layered citizenship increasingly pertinent. Secondly, where equality was largely conceptualised in relation to economic redistribution and formal anti-discrimination legislation, it is now increasingly being framed by the emergence of group recognition claims, which signals the growing importance of particularized experiences, group rights and multiple inequalities, making the notion of diversity increasingly pertinent.