Building ‘Modern’ Japan through Western Sports and the Olympic Games
Asian Olympics, such as the 1964 Tokyo, 1972 Sapporo, 1988 Seoul and the 1998 Nagano Olympics are next addressed to reveal lingering political and cultural
assumptions made of the East within the Olympic movement. The Beijing bid for the 2008 Olympics is brieﬂy considered to assess how Chinese modernity is being
politically showcased for the world in much the same way that Japanese modernity was showcased in 1940. In the ﬁnal analysis, the extent to which Asian Olympic host
cities represent their national culture and modernity according to a different cultural logic to the Western cities of other continents is explored.