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Notes

In conjunction with the reintroduction of traditional Japanese military arts and the increased militarization of Western sports as key vehicles for realizing national values

and character, the nation state shifted from merely sponsoring participation in the Olympic Games to advocating that Japan host the 1940 Olympic Games. Although

Tokyo City officials initiated the bid for the 1940 games, the national government would slowly adopt the campaign as the state came to appreciate the role of sports in

fomenting both Japanese nationalism and international awareness of Japan. The official poster for the 1940 Tokyo Olympic Games marked a shift in the Japanese state

endorsement of the Games (see Figure 1).