Widows' Spiritual Journeys: Do They Quest?
This chapter presents the examination of the effects of religiosity by focusing on its association with depressive symptomatology and prosocial behavior. Positive effects of organizational religiosity have been reported for life satisfaction, morale positive affect and self-esteem. Subjective spirituality and public religiosity were significantly associated with prosocial behaviors. Eisinga and Billiet present evidence that the effects of organizational religiosity and religious beliefs on prejudicial attitudes are moderated by authoritarianism and nationality with some residents of Christian nations reporting high levels of prejudice. Depressive symptoms were indexed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Index. Ample evidence suggests that African-Americans exhibit comparatively high levels of religiosity and may interpret religious activities differently than other racial or ethnic groups. The literature strongly demonstrates the benefits of organizational religiosity on measures of morbidity and mortality and psychological well-being. Several large-scale examinations of religiosity among older adults have utilized telephone and personal interviews.