Developing a black criminology of desistance
Russell (2002) calls for the development of a ‘black criminology’ as a viable sub-ﬁeld of criminology, while Phillips and Bowling (2003) further argue the need to develop ‘minority perspectives’ in criminology. These authors highlight the ongoing dialogue in relation to the context and location of the role of how to ensure that black contribution to criminology is not rendered invisible. The concept of ‘invisibility’ was put forward by African-American novelist, Ralph Ellison, where he states:
I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who ‘haunted’ Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of ﬂesh and bone, ﬁbre and liquids – and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible; understand, simply because people refuse to see me.