Modern operational art and the operational level of war
This chapter examines each of these schools of thought in turn, identifying the key arguments associated with each. The different perspectives span a range of future visions of land forces: dispersed, high-technology, conventional warfare involving small, heavily digitized forces; low-technology warfare featuring irregular, non-state actors in which conventional forces involved; and blended wars in which future armies will face adversaries mixing both irregular and regular techniques of warfare. It surrounding debates of the Military Affairs Revolution: a label applied to a particular viewpoint on future warfare which emerged as a potent force in the wake of the Gulf War of 1990-91. This chapter finishes by examining an alternative to the essentially predictive approaches of these three schools: a focus on organisational adaptability. It trying to prepare for a single template of future warfare may less useful than building into an army the ability to respond quickly to the real conditions that emerge.