The Constitution of Black America within the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Race and class distinctions within black communities in the US and UK must be understood as being constituted within and by the two dominant social class language games, a black bourgeoisie and underclass, created by the class division and social relations of production of global capitalism or the Protestant capitalist world-system, which discriminated against all other forms of being and organizing the world arrived at through the deferment of meaning in ego-centered communicative discourse. This Marxist dialectical perspective stands against contemporary postmodern and post-structural theories, which focus on local formations, heterogeneity, the diverse, the subjective, the spontaneous, the relative, and the fragmentary as the basis for understanding the constitution of black identities and consciousnesses in the US and UK. The latter positions, we argue in this work, are also the product of class division and social relations of production in late postindustrial capitalist development and organization. As a result, they fail to adequately address the issues regarding the origins and basis for the constitution of black identities and consciousnesses in America and the UK, which emerged within class division and the social relations of agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial production.