The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups Madagascar
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book focuses on training and technical non-monetary benefits with only the small likelihood of long-term monetary royalty or milestone benefits. It explores further genebank sourcing might have the effect of reducing payment of upfront benefits, besides small access fees, to local communities in foreign countries. The real test for 'fair and equitable' benefit sharing from bioprospecting will be closely related to the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol by certain key actors, and will depend how they adopt it. Another main set of actors, the countries located in the European Union, have begun putting in place regulations for the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol. The exception might be through the cosmetic industry and like industries who perceive a marketing advantage in ethical and sustainable sourcing, including fair and equitable benefit sharing.